Mwanza is a bit away from home and many things are different; e.g. water-, food- and weather conditions. But your health as visitor depends often on the preparation before leaving your hometown and your family doctor. Discuss the requirements with your doctor not later than six weeks before leaving. There are very few (to none) requirements for proof of vaccinations for entry into Tanzania, but some protection/vaccination are strongly recommended anyway; e.g. against hepatitis A, typhoid, diphtheria and tetanus.
fever (Updated 21st April 2008) is a viral disease transmitted
between humans by a mosquito. General precautions to avoid mosquito bites
should be followed. These include the use of insect repellent, protective
clothing, and mosquito netting. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness
in travellers, but some countries in Africa still have regulations and
requirements for yellow fever vaccination. Among them – Tanzania.
Yellow fever vaccine entry requirements are necessary
for travelers to comply with in order to enter Tanzania. In general,
these are in place to prevent importation and transmission of yellow
fever virus. Countries requiring yellow fever vaccination for entry
adhere to the regulations put forth by WHO as stated in the International
The vaccination is relatively cheap and it is valid for 10 years. And don’t forget, that yellow fever is a deadly disease without any known cure.
Check on the situation with
your local ‘Travel Medicine Clinic’ or the nearest Tanzanian representation
before leaving home. Find the nearest representation at: www.mwanza-guide.com/traveler.htm
diarrhoea is a clinical syndrome resulting from microbial contamination
of ingested food and water; it occurs during or shortly after travel,
most commonly affecting persons travelling from an area of more highly
developed hygiene and sanitation infrastructure to a less developed one
like Tanzania. Diarrhoea is the most common travel-related illness. Avoid
tap water, un-pasteurised milk, ice-cubes in drinks, fresh vegetables
and fruits (of not cooked or peeled). Be selective when taking food from
street vendors - it has to be cooked seriously all the way through.
Seek medical attention if the diarrhoea last for more than two - three days, are extreme painful and self treatment isn’t working. Eat (mashed) bananas and drink plenty of fluids - e.g. Coca Cola.
is a serious disease that is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected
female Anopheles mosquito. Symptoms may include fever and flu-like illness,
including chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Malaria can often
be prevented by using anti-malarial drugs and by using personal protection
measures to prevent mosquito bites. However, in spite of all protective
measures, travellers may still develop malaria. Malaria symptoms will
occur at least seven to nine days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.
Fever in the first week of travel in a malaria-risk area is unlikely to
be malaria; however, any fever should be promptly evaluated. Travellers
who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness while travelling in a
malaria-risk area and up to one year after returning home should seek
prompt medical attention and should tell the physician their travel. There
are several types of anti-malarial drugs. Discuss the best one for you
with your doctor before leaving home.
Unfortunately most people will have to use some kind of medication as malaria-prevention. Through history, various combined preventions have been taken in use – from the stuff kinin, extracted from Oak-bark, to the popular and active combination of Klorokin- and Paludrine tablets. But along the times the mosquitoes have developed quite a resistant immune system to these combinations, thus no longer sufficient.
The three most prescribed malaria-preventions to day are: Doxycyklin(Vibradox), Lariam® and Malarone. None are without small physical as well as some economical side effects. But Lariam has also proved to have severe negative psychological side effects – why it is strongly recommended to think about taken this drug at all. Malarone is effective, but somewhat expensive - why many travellers choose Doxycyklin(Vibradox) in the end - as their favourite protection against malaria. Always bring the anti-malarial drugs with you from home.
Most anti-malaria drugs are sold Mwanza without prescription from a medical doctor - also halofantrine better known as HALFAN. DON’T ever use this drug without your family doctor’s recommendation.
In rare cases, halofantrine may affect the heart, causing irregular heartbeats that could result in death. Do not take halofantrine if you have a heart condition such as an irregular heartbeats or a history of irregular heartbeats; a history of prolonged QT intervals; a family history of congenital long QT syndrome; heart block or other conduction disturbances; or unexplained episodes of fainting. These conditions may increase the risk of irregular heartbeats and death while taking halofantrine.
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|Typhoid fever is an acute, life-threatening febrile illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. The disease is characterized by fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, splenomegaly, and a relative bradycardia. Many mild and atypical infections occur. Typhoid vaccination is not required for international travel, but it is recommended for travellers to areas where there is a recognized risk of exposure to Salmonella typhi. Vaccination is particularly recommended for those who will be travelling in smaller cities, villages, and rural areas off the usual tourist itineraries. Travellers should be cautioned that typhoid vaccination is not 100% effective and is not a substitute for careful selection of food and drink. There is more than one type of protection against typhoid fever. Discuss the best one for you with your doctor before leaving home. It is recommended to be protected before entering Tanzania.||To the top|
A: An inflammation of the liver caused by the Hepatitis A virus.
The disease is transmitted by contaminated food or water, or contact with
a person ill with Hepatitis A. The Hepatitis A virus is shed in the stools
of an infected person during the incubation period of 15 to 45 days before
symptoms occur and during the first week of illness. Blood and secretions
may also be infectious. The virus does not remain in the body after the
infection has resolved, and there is no carrier state (a person who spreads
the disease to others but does not become ill).
The symptoms associated with Hepatitis A are similar to the flu, but the skin and the eyes may become yellow (jaundice) because the liver is not able to filter bilirubin from the blood.
Transmission of the virus can be reduced by avoiding unclean food and water, thorough hand washing after using the restroom, and thorough cleansing if there is any contact with an affected person's blood, feces*), or any body fluid. There is more than one type of protection against Hepatis A. Discuss the best one for you with your doctor before leaving home. It is recommended to be protected before entering Tanzania. To the top
*) Human stools.
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is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.
The infection is often mild and self-limited or sub clinical. People with
severe cases respond dramatically to simple fluid- and electrolyte-replacement
therapy. Infection is acquired primarily by ingesting contaminated water
or food; person-to-person transmission is rare. The vaccine against cholera
gives poor protection, many side effects, so it’s not recommended for
travellers. People who follow usual tourist itineraries and who observe
food safety recommendations while in countries reporting cholera have
virtually no risk. Risk increases for those who drink untreated water
or ingest poorly cooked or raw seafood in endemic areas
Information from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (CDC): Currently, no country or territory requires vaccination as a condition for entry. Local authorities, however, may continue to require documentation of vaccination against cholera. In such cases, a single dose of either oral vaccine is sufficient to satisfy local requirements, or a medical waiver may be given.
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|Other (not especially travel related) deceases:|
is an acute infectious disease caused by the toxin-producing bacteria
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It usually affects the respiratory tract
(primarily the larynx, tonsils, and throat). But it can also affect the
skin, and the toxin produced by this bacterium can damage the nerves and
Diphtheria is found only in humans and is usually transmitted by respiratory droplets from infected persons or a symptomatic carrier, but can be transmitted by contaminated objects or foods (such as contaminated milk). The incubation period is 2 to 5 days.
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|Tetanus is an acute disease caused by the toxin of the bacterium Clostridium tetani that affects the central nervous system, sometimes resulting in death. Spores of the bacterium Clostridium tetani live in the soil and are distributed worldwide. In the spore form, Clostridium tetani may remain dormant in the soil, but can be infectious for periods longer than 40 years. The disease is characterized by painful muscular contractions. Vaccination for diphtheria and tetanus are usually combined and are recommended for everyone, and boosters are necessary very ten years. Consult your family doctor before leaving home.||To the top|
is a serious disease, first recognized as a distinct syndrome in 1981.
This syndrome represents the late clinical state of infection with the
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), resulting in progressive damage to
the immune system and in life-threatening infectious and non-infectious
AIDS and HIV infection occur worldwide. Comprehensive surveillance systems are lacking in many countries, so the true number of cases is likely to be far greater than the numbers officially reported, particularly from developing nations. No vaccine is available to prevent infection with HIV and NO cure for the disease.
of the virus occurs:
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|Bilharzia: Note that Lake Victoria is riddled with Bilharzia, so avoid swimming or walking barefoot through the grass along its shores, as this is where the parasite-hosting snails lurk.||To the top|
Typhoid fever: www.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/typhoid.htm
Hepatitis A: www.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/hav.htm
About safe sex: health.yahoo.com/health/encyclopedia/001949/0.html
Anti-malaria drug Halfan: vfend.drugs.com/xq/cfm/pageID_0/htm_d04842A1.htm/bn_Halfan/qx/index.htm
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